Traditional Educational Institutions in Child Education in Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone is bounded on the north-west, north, and north-east by using the Republic Guinea, at the south-east of the Republic of Liberia, and on the south-west using the Atlantic Ocean. It has a place of 27,925 rectangular miles. Sierra Leone’s colony originated inside the sale and session in 1787, utilizing native chiefs to English settlers of a chunk of land supposed as a domestic for African settlers who had been waifs in London. Later, it becomes used as an agreement for freed African slaves. The hinterland changed into declared a British Protectorate on twenty-first August 1896. Sierra Leone attained independence on the twenty-seventh April 1961 and became a Republic in 1971. Education is provided by way of both private and state-backed faculties. The present-day education device is 6-3-four-4 (this is six years Primary school, three years Junior Secondary School, four years Senior Secondary School, and 4 years tertiary/better training. This device is complemented via non-formal training.
CONCEPT OF EDUCATION
Education is regularly used in the sense of guidance in the study room, laboratory, workshop, or domestic science room and is composed basically within the teacher’s supplying, the acquisition using pupils, statistics and intellectuals, and guiding skills. A wider that means that coaching is that of schooling. That is to mention all that goes on within the faculty as part of the scholar’s existence. It consists of, amongst different matters, the relationship between students and teachers, pupils and pupils each in and out of doors the college. J. S. Mill (1931) opined that something allows shaping the person; to make the individual what he’s or preclude him from being what he isn’t is a part of his education. Implicitly education is lifelong and ubiquitous; it’s far the sum overall of all influences which go to make someone what he is, from delivery to loss of life. It consists of the home, our neighbors, and the road, amongst others.
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Education is to a point a planned, deliberate procedure devised and carried out through the educator with the reason of imbuing the learner with certain statistics, abilities, thoughts, and frames and modes of conduct considered suitable. In component, it’s miles the learner’s personal reaction to the surroundings wherein he lives. Education has 3 focal factors: the individual/person upon whom the educator’s impacts are added to undergo; the society or network to which he belongs; and the entire context of fact within which the character and society play their element. Man is a social creature; he grows as a person thru the impact of persona on a persona. Even for his simple physical needs, he relies upon his fellow women and men’s assist and cooperation. Without society and the mutual aid and enrichment of reports that it offers, civilization is not possible. In Hobbes’ phrases, guys’ lifestyles are “solitary, negative, nasty, brutish and brief.”
One of the essential statistics of human life is the anxiety between the pull of the beyond and the forward urge into the future, between balance and alternate, tradition and innovation. For effective residing, a guy needs a circle of protection, an area of established conduct and courting which paperwork dependable relationships. This is likewise true of society. For its effective functioning, there must be an underlying continuity of traditions and outlook that preserves its identification as a society and safeguards it towards the exchange’s disruptive results. Change ought to be for lifestyles and not static, but this transformation in flip has to be managed with the aid of society’s basic traditions. It is a way of life that gives a country its individual and distinctiveness as a society. The conservation of subculture, therefore, is glaringly crucial.
History exhibits that there had been no formal colleges in which children were knowledgeable in Pre-colonial Sierra Leone. The Poro and Bondo/Sande Secret Societies have been looked upon as establishments to train kids. They were bush colleges. And the training those bush colleges furnished was casual. Children who went through these mystery societies had been considered able to wear out their civic duties. They became adults and can marry and start lifestyles. They were taken into consideration as one family. In different phrases, each Secret Societies created an experience of comradeship and solidarity among members no matter circle of relatives, clan, or ethnic affiliation. Therefore, it became taken into consideration that kids who had no longer long gone through these mystery societies were not completely matured.
The Poro Secret Society is for boys. The Poro Society’s religious head is Pa Gbonu, visible best by the older graduates or participants. The physical heads are the Pa Sama Yorgbors and Pa Romanos. They direct the activities of the group. The senior teachers are the Pa Kashis, who normally educate and give instructions to different initiators. The Pa Manchiyas serve as instructors to the initiates simultaneously as the Kachemak are the scaring spirits. They scare the girls and children alike together with the brand new initiates. The Rakas are the errand boys wearing messages round. The Yambas are the top boys. The Bomos are the senior prefects, while the Sayboms are the prefects, and the monitors are the Gbanaboms. Informal lessons are held inside the Secret Poro Bush. The subjects taught include Creative Practical Arts, Performing Arts, Practical Agriculture, Medicine i.E. Use of nearby herbs to treat various ailments), struggle, and different abilities. In Creative Practical Arts, initiates are taught how to make fishing nets, baskets, mats, and carving wood and soap stones into specific items, including animals and human beings; in Performing Arts, initiates are initiates taught making a song, dancing, and using Poro musical instruments. In Practical Agriculture initiates practice farming. Boys are taught to endure difficulty without grievance and grow conversant in it. Thus they are taken to the farms by their teachers and elders to paintings on a pro bono basis. However, in the course of the harvest season, initiates may want to skip through these farms taking something they need and consume without being puzzled by way of farm proprietors. Initiates are taught to appreciate elders and use weapons to kill animals. In a similar vein, initiates are taught how to use guns in fighting in protection in their groups. Other competencies initiates are taught making fish traps, fishing and looking the internet, and basketry. In the usage of herbs, initiates pay money (a few freely given) for recovery of various diseases and safety towards enemies, evil spirits, and snake bites. Initiates who need to cause harm others the usage of herbs could ‘redeem’ the herb/remedy involved. Over all initiates are taught a brand new Language spoken simplest with the aid of individuals called Ke Sonor. For example, folks trika, which means I am talking to you; Wonka Bonomi, means Talking to me. The use of this new Language makes graduates very proud and experience distinct from non-initiates. Graduates pop out with new names, which include Lamp, Langba, and Kohler. A graduation ceremony climaxes the occasion.
Parents make big preparations such as stitching clothes for the graduates. There is feasting, consuming, dancing, and singing praise songs for the graduates and their parents to mark the commencement rite. Those qualified for initiation must have been circumcised and grown to the age of puberty. They need to stay on their own in the course of the training length, which degrees from one to seven years. Graduates are absolutely admitted to the general Poro society thru any other ceremony is known as Encore, which lasts for four days.
The Bondo/Sande Society is the institution wherein ladies are trained for womanhood. Its spiritual head is Na Bondigba. The Na Gboyamas and Na Wulus are the bodily heads. These have now secular powers used to foretell the destiny and trap witches. They are the senior teachers. The Na Sokos is the career teachers. They can provoke women even as much as the superior stage of the Society. Douglas is the general teacher and stays near the initiates. The Sampas is the skillful dancers and errand girls/girls. They make bulletins about the development and activities or applications during the graduation rate.